US pharmacies reportedly set purchase limit on emergency contraception pills

Pharmacy companies such as Walmart, CVS and Rite Aid are reportedly putting a cap on the number of morning-after birth control pills each consumer can buy in the US, in the wake of the supreme court’s decision overturning Roe v Wade.

Meanwhile, online retailer Amazon has placed a temporary limit of three units a week on emergency contraception pills, the company said.

Walmart put a cap of four or six units of their morning-after pills for orders scheduled for delivery through the end of the month, but no such caps exist for deliveries beginning in July.

A Walmart representative said, “during times of fluctuating demand” their limits for online purchases change. They added that there is an online limit the store has to prevent people from stockpiling and re-selling their products for a higher price. No such limit exists in stores, but store managers can make that decision to ensure availability of the products.


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INCEPTA Pharmaceuticals Ltd is proud to become one of the 27 companies to sign licensing agreement with the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP)

INCEPTA Pharmaceuticals Ltd is proud to become one of the 27 companies to sign licensing agreement with the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) to manufacture the generic version of the oral COVID-19 antiviral medication Molnupiravir for supply in 105 low- and-middle-income countries (LMICs).

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Japan OKs Pfizer Covid-19 oral pills amid surging infections
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Disposable Face Masks vs Reusable Face Masks

With the current Covid-19 pandemic in the spotlight, there has been an upsurge in the usage of disposable face masks, reusable face masks, hand sanitizers, handwashes, gloves, face coverings, and other PPE. Covid-19 is mostly transmitted from person to person by droplets in the air. Everything used as precautionary measures to prevent the spread of the pandemic is justified.


Prior to the covid -19 vaccination, the primary ways of limiting the spread of the deadly virus were through precautionary measures, handwashing guidelines, and social distancing. Among these procedures, covering the nose and face is the most important way to avoid infection, which is why people have relied on many types of face masks, such as disposable masks, Type IIR masks, professional respirators including FFP2 and FFP3, cloth or paper masks.

Some masks are more effective than others in slowing the transmission of the virus that causes Covid-19. Wearing a disposable face mask, discarding it at the end of the day, and replacing it the next day may be a hygienic and added precaution, while reusable face masks are more cost-effective because you can re-use them.

The benefits and drawbacks of both types of face masks may be evaluated in order to make an informed decision.

Disposable Face Masks

The disposable face mask, like any other face mask, contributes to the prevention of COVID-19 transmission.

It adequately covers the nose and mouth, attempting to prevent any droplets from entering your body or, in the case of a virus carrier who is not displaying any symptoms, preventing the spread of infection by preventing tiny droplets from contaminating the surroundings



type iir face mask 3 layers explained in illustrations


Wearing a disposable mask is advised for individuals going out, doing their jobs, or any activity that may cause two or more people to gather.

Disposable face masks play a critical role in healthcare facilities. Type IIR disposable masks are a typical piece of surgical equipment used by doctors throughout any surgical procedure or while examining patients suffering from a bacterial or viral infection. Since the oral and nasal cavities are more susceptible to infection, these masks act as an effective barrier or protection to the user. Disposable masks are composed of several layers and are intended to be discarded after a single usage by a doctor in an operating room or after 4-6 hours of use.

The Type IIR and FFP masks are the most common disposable masks.

Type IIR masks:

Type IIR face masks are widely used by health care professionals and ordinary people to prevent large particles exhaled by the user from reaching the patient or the surrounding environment. These masks are suited for circumstances in which the healthcare workers are at the danger of exposure to blood or bodily fluids from the patient or work environment.

hardshell uk made surgical type IIR mask with Hardshell Uk Name Engraved blue colour


These masks are loose fitting masks that are manufactured in Europe in line with BS EN14683:2019 standards but do not have to follow the fit testing or seal check requirements.

Some of the perks of Type IIR disposable face masks are as follows:

  1. They are affordable and easily available at medical supply stores.
  2. They are fluid resistant and can filter large droplets.
  3. Healthcare providers, patients, and others may comfortably use it since it prevents individuals from becoming infected from one another.


While the Type IIR mask is a good choice, it does have certain downsides, including:

  1. Since they are incapable of filtering tiny airborne particles, people with easily transmissible illnesses should consider using masks with greater filtration capabilities such as FFP2 or FFP3 masks.
  2. They may be loose-fitting and unable to offer a secure and comfortable fit over the face and nose, allowing particle leakage into surrounding environment.


FFP Masks

The FFP masks offer guaranteed protection from hazardous particles and aerosols. There are three EN protection classifications for single-use dust protection masks (FFP masks):  FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3. The FFP masks must pass fit tests and seal checks requirements. These masks filter at least 90% of particulates, including large and small droplets.

While evaluating FFP2 and FFP3 masks, we must also study their advantages and disadvantages.

hardshell FFP3 Mask made uk white colour with hardshell uk printed on it

These masks are packed with advantages such as:

  1. Their ease of availability in shops.
  2. It has a higher filtering capacity than other masks and can shield you against even the smallest airborne particles.
  3. There is very little to no leakage as they are designed for tight fitting.

Although these masks are an excellent choice in terms of the protection they provide, they do have certain drawbacks, such as:

  1. They are more expensive than other types of masks.
  2. The relatively thicker fabric layers might create breathing difficulties in critically ill patients.
  3. Because it is so closely fitted to the face, it might leave scars on the skin, causing aesthetic issues.

Reusable Face Masks:

Reusable face masks are composed of a variety of fabrics. They can come in a variety of fabric combinations, layering sequences, size and shapes. These face masks are required to meet the bare minimum of filtration, breathability, inhalation or exhalation resistance. It is advised to wash the mask on a regular basis or when it becomes contaminated before reusing it for sanitary reasons.

The following are some of the benefits and drawbacks of reusable face masks:


  1. It can be washed and reused several times.
  2. It has interchangeable filters that may be replaced when they become contaminated.


  1. Breathing gets difficult with repeated usage.
  2. After each usage, it gets more prone to becoming contaminated.
  3. Filters do not cover the entire mask, simply the nose and face.

girl wearing back color reusable cotton mask


Face mask disposal

To avoid transmission from waste and discarded material, any form of mask must be used and disposed of properly.

The following instructions can be used to properly dispose of old masks:

  • After disposal, practise hand hygiene by thoroughly washing or sanitising your hands.
  • Untie the mask from behind the ear, not from the front and avoid touching masks from the centre; instead, pick it up from the edges.
  • As the used mask becomes wet or damp, reuse after washing or replace it with a new one.
  • Discard disposable masks after each usage and dispose of them promptly after removal.

disposable mask disposing correct process

To avoid contracting an airborne virus, it is critical to understand how to correctly utilise face masks. Face masks should cover your entire face, from the bridge of your nose to the area under your chin. It should be comfortable but tight enough to stay put. Make sure you can talk and breathe easily, and that it does not annoy you, so you do not continually touch or pull it out, which in turn may put an individual at risk of infection or impair its efficacy.



The type of mask to wear should be determined by the situation and exposure conditions. Based on the explanation of disposable and reusable masks above, we can infer that both of these masks are considered as primary contributors for the general public.

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Surgical Face Masks V/S Respirators

The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has already infected millions of individuals worldwide, and global vaccination campaigns are underway to limit transmission as quickly as feasible. While there is common consensus that travel restrictions and social isolation have been effective in limiting transmission, suggestions for the use of face masks are universal.

To protect ourselves from viral agents, we must wear something that resists the infections we bring with us. For this reason, many individuals prefer medical Face Masks and respirators to keep themselves safe and healthy. Masks should be worn as part of a complete ‘Do it all!' strategy that includes social distancing, avoiding busy, confined, and close-contact environments, sufficient ventilation, hand washing, masking sneezes and coughs, etc.

Masks, depending on the kind, can be used to protect healthy people or to prevent further transmission. In general, masks are used in hospitals for two reasons: to protect both health workers and patients, and thereby preventing viral diseases from spreading. The use of face masks is no longer limited to hospitals or patients, as the growing epidemic has forced everyone to wear a mask on a regular basis.

The surgical masks and Respirators are the two most common types of Medical Face masks used by the people.

The surgical Masks are classified as Type I and Type II according to their Bacterial Filtration Efficiency (BFE). The Type II masks are further divided into Type II and Type IIR Masks according to their Splash Resistance against potentially contaminated fluid splashes. A Type IIR mask is splash resistant while a Type II mask is not.

The surgical masks are composed of fabric layers that keep particles from spreading when a person sneezes or coughs, confining viruses to the mask and protecting others from infection.

Respirators are classed as FFP1, FFP2, and FFP3 based on their ability to filter bacteria and other pathogens by 90%, 95%, and 99%, respectively.

Understanding the difference between Surgical masks and the Respirators is critical in choosing which is best for the user. The major differences are as follows:


Surgical Face MaskSurgical Mask Illustration

Type I, Type II, or Type IIR surgical masks are loose-fitting disposable masks that establish a physical barrier between the wearer's nose and mouth and pollutants.


FFP1, FFP2, and FFP3 respirators are respiratory protective devices designed to provide a very close face fit and highly efficient filtration of airborne particles


Surgical Mask Vs Respirator USE :-

Surgical Face Mask

Hinders the wearer's respiratory droplets from infecting other people & surfaces. Type IIR masks can also protect the wearer from large droplets or sprays of hazardous fluids.



Wearers are protected by minimizing their exposure to harmful airborne particles in the environment, such as tiny particle aerosols and droplets


Surgical Mask Vs Respirator Fitting Comparison 

Surgical Mask

Fits loosely across the face. The mask's edges are not intended to completely seal around the nose and mouth.

Loose Fitting



Fits snugly around the face, forming a seal between the face and the respirator.

Tight Fitting 



Face Fit Testing Surgical Mask Vs Respirators

Surgical Mask

No, however proper donning and doffing procedures must be followed.



Yes. Furthermore, each time the respirator is put on, a user seal check is required. Donning and doffing protocols should also be followed.


Surgical Mask vs Respirator Use in Healthcare:

Surgical Mask Use in Health Care

  • In clustered areas (but no interaction with patients)
  • Direct patient interaction (less than one metre)
  • Session usage in a particular healthcare facility or exposure environment.
  • Improving Infection Control
  • Minimizing the threat of cross-contamination.
  • Clinical applications with low risk that do not include blood-borne pathogens or body fluids


Respirator Use in Healthcare

  • When performing aerosol-generating procedures on a patient who has COVID-19, both suspected or confirmed.
  • In high-risk regions where AGPs are being carried out
  • In clustered areas (but no interaction with patients)
  • Direct patient interaction (less than one metre)
  • Session usage in a particular healthcare facility or exposure environment.
  • Ambulance attendants
  • Care home staff



Surgical Mask Vs Respirator Use in Industry :

Surgical Mask use in Industry

Although not currently recommended, the following options could be considered:

Certain workplaces and occupations that require physical closeness many people.


Respirator Use in Industry 

The use of an FFP3 or FFP2 respirator Mask is recommended in any workplace where a hazardous substance has been recognised.

  • Prison officers
  • Police or security forces (those who are in close proximity to the Covid 19 occurrences)


Use in Community Settings 

Surgical Mask 

Although not presently advised, the following options might well be considered:

  • While taking public transportation
  • While visiting crowded, enclosed areas such as grocery stores, shopping malls, etc.



It is not recommended that the general public use them to protect against infections such as COVID-19, since they are critical supplies that must be reserved for health care personnel and other medical first responders.


Surgical Mask Vs Respirator - Suitable for :

Surgical Mask Suitable For :

Regular activities that pose no risk of exposure to blood or bodily fluids and are unlikely to expose you to viruses


Respirator Suitable for : 

Those who have a true need for splash resistance in settings where fluid contamination and viruses are a possibility.




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How do Respirators Actually Work?

Because fine dust particles and aerosols are nearly undetectable, they pose the greatest harm to human health. As a result, they are nearly imperceptible in the air around us. We can inhale them without even realizing it.


This is especially troubling in view of the current scenario. Even the tiniest viruses have the potential to kill humans. They have the ability to damage our respiratory systems quite quickly. Bacteria that enter our bodies through the air can rapidly spread through the bloodstream, giving them access to all areas of our bodies. They can seriously damage everything, often all at once, with no chance for diagnosis or treatment. This is one of the main reasons why having a respirator is so important, especially for employees in the medical field, chemical factory workers, pest exterminators, and a variety of other occupations who are all at risk.

In this column, we'll look at how respirators work, what risks they guard against, and different types of respirators.


The functions:

Respirators protect individuals from bacteria and viruses by capturing particles such as smoke, smog, poisonous carbon particles, oily aerosols, and droplets.


Manufacturers should evaluate the product standards through extensive testing. Various governments have established rules to guarantee that respirators meet their quality and performance requirements. Respirator manufacturers must demonstrate that their masks provide adequate protection. The filtering efficiency of the dust particles in various air conditions are tested by the government experts through standard procedures.


The majority of health agencies have accepted that radioactive or carcinogenic particles are the most hazardous of all. Individuals who are exposed to these for an extended period of time might get several really hazardous diseases. They cause serious damage to the body's respiratory system, which can lead to serious illnesses over time.


Respirators filter out particles while also protecting the respiratory system from toxic vapours and gases. To filter contaminants, manufacturers utilize many layers of filtering materials. Dominating part of the mask are these layers.


The commonly used materials in the masks are melt-blown or spun-bond. The respirators will have a valve for exhalation. All the different layers of the mask serve different purposes. The respirators should be durable and also provide biological filtration and tear resistance.




  1. FFP1 respirators


These FFP1 respirators are typically worn by workers to prevent irritation and odor in the respiratory tract. Used in situations where inhaling particles might cause illness.


  1. FFP2 respirators


These FFP2 respirators are useful in areas where inflammatory particles are present in the breathable air. These particles are extremely dangerous. They can irritate the respiratory tract significantly for a short period of time. In the long run, they will harm the lungs' tissues.


  1. FFP3 respirators


These masks are required in areas where there is radioactive or carcinogenic material in the air. The FFP3 Respirators can also protect employees against airborne fungus spores, germs, and viruses.

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Type IIR Masks - How they are Manufactured ?

Disposable Type IIR medical masks have the following fundamental construction and functions:

Type IIR surgical facemasks are constructed with three layers of non-woven fabric. The inner layer is a standard non-woven fabric that is primarily intended to absorb and release moisture from the wearer; The outermost layer is a splash resistant non-woven fabric that is primarily utilised to conceal the patient's sprayed liquid. The polypropylene melt-blown non-woven fabric coated with electret functions as a microbial barrier as in filter layer in the core.



Medical masks go through a systematic manufacturing process. 

Polypropylene, a polymer manufactured into fibres and blown into position to produce textiles, is used to make Type IIR surgical facemasks. To manufacture these masks, manufacturers use a melt-blowing process.


Polypropylene is melted and pressed through a die with numerous small holes. The press produces microscopic fibres that are blown upon a scaffold or conveyors by heated air. The fibres adhere together as they are heated. As it is along the line to make the mask fabric, it cools.


Step 1: Stack and combine the three layers of non-woven fabrics.

The three non-woven fabrics are placed on the fixed support on the production line and are precisely stacked together.


Step 2: Folding of the mask

A folding mechanism is used on the mask production line to generate pleats. It is flattened using a roller machine to generate a crease and better processing in subsequent processes.


Step 3: Adding the nose clip-attached metal wire into the laminated layered non-woven fabric.

When wearing the mask, the nose clip must be pinched to the bridge of the nose to provide a secure fit. Otherwise, the nose leak will be worse, the seal will be loose, and the protective effect will be compromised.

The wire is aligned and carried along one side of the nonwoven fabric, then the edges are folded, and the wire is sealed in and all edges of the masks are ultrasonically welded together


Step 4:  Cut the sheet of masks into single mask units


Step 5: Using the thermoforming device, attach the hanging ear loop to the mask's four corners.

It is vital to apply adhesives at the four corners of the mask to improve the binding strength of the string and the mask body. During the pressing process, it is mechanically transferred, and the ear loops are hung from the laminating machine and attached to the mask with an adhesive.

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We can offer You Made In Uk Masks and competitive prices
We can offer You Made In Uk Masks and competitive prices

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Glenmark and SaNOtize introduce nasal spray to treat Covid-19 in India

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals and Canada-based SaNOtize Research & Development have introduced the Nitric Oxide Nasal Spray (NONS) to treat Covid-19 in adult patients in India.

To be marketed under the brand name FabiSpray, the treatment is intended for Covid-19 patients at increased disease progression risk.

The latest development comes after Glenmark obtained manufacturing and marketing approval from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) for NONS under the accelerated approval process.

FabiSpray has been designed to destroy the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes Covid-19 in the upper airways.

Furthermore, the spray has established anti-microbial properties with a direct virucidal effect on the virus.

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India gives Việt Nam COVID-19 vaccines and raw materials to make COVID drugs
On behalf of the Ministry of Health, Deputy Minister Trần Văn Thuấn receives the vaccine and the medical materials donated by India. — Photo from the Ministry of Health

HÀ NỘI — A total of 200,000 doses of India's COVID-19 vaccine Covaxin for children, and one ton of raw materials for COVID-19 drug production, donated by India, arrived at Nội Bài International Airport on Sunday evening as National Assembly chairman Vương Đình Huệ wrapped up his visit to India.

His visit to India took place at the invitation of the Speaker of the Indian House of Representatives Om Birla and the President of the Indian Senate Venkaiah Naidu.

On behalf of the Ministry of Health, Deputy Minister Trần Văn Thuấn received the vaccine and the medicinal materials that will be used to make Movinavir 200g to treat COVID-19.

From December 12 to 19, NA chairman Huệ also led a high-ranking delegation to visit Korea at the invitation of South Korea's President of the National Assembly Park Byeong Seug.

One of the activities of Huệ’s working trips was to focus on vaccine diplomacy and seeking funds for social security activities.

At Nội Bài International Airport, the Office of the National Assembly on Sunday evening held a ceremony to hand over the donation to the Việt Nam Fatherland Front Central Committee and vaccines and medical materials to the Ministry of Health. 

Deputy Prime Minister Lê Minh Khái, official members of the delegation, leaders of the Central Committee of the Việt Nam Fatherland Front and Health Ministry attended the handover ceremony.

At the ceremony, Deputy Prime Minister Khái presented a sign displaying the 2 billion Won (VNĐ 40 billion) donation, supported by Hana Bank Financial Group (Korea), to carry out social security activities with the Bank of Investment and Development of Vietnam (BIDV).

The Central Committee of the Việt Nam Fatherland Front received the fund to implement programmes on the donation of 65 ambulances, building cultural houses and flood shelters.

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COVID-19 pills could spark scramble among nations

The antiviral COVID-19 pills developed by U.S. firms are the next step in the pandemic battle.

However, some countries have raised concerns that shortages and manufacturing chaos could hamper the global supply, according to The Washington Post.

Wealthy countries have already advance-purchased much of the supply of treatments expected to be available in the first half of 2022.

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Square launches Molnupiravir in local mkt

Square Pharmaceuticals Limited has brought the world’s first orally taking coronavirus drug ‘Molvir capsule (Molnupiravir)’ to the local market.

Erik S Chowdhury, Director (Supply chain management and technical services department) of Square Pharmaceuticals, launched the life-saving drug through unwrapping the Molvir at a function on Thursday.

Md Atikuzzaman, General Manager (Marketing Division) of Square Pharmaceuticals, presented the scientific information of the capsule at the function.

Ahmed Kamrul Alam, Director (marketing division) of Square Pharmaceuticals, moderated the programme while Mahmudur Rahman Bhuiyan, General Manager (sales) of Square Pharmaceuticals, was also present in the event. On November 8, the company got emergency authorisation of production and marketing of the Molnupiravir from Directorate General of Drug Administration (DGDA). Earlier, the Molnupiravir has got permission for emergency use in the treatment of corona infected patients of the country. Earlier, the UKMHRA approved the Molnupiravir for use on November 4.

The Molnupiravir can reduce the rate of hospitalisation and death of corona-virus infected patients to 50 percent.

Square Pharmaceuticals said the Molvir capsule’s efficacy starts within 30 minutes after taking the dose. The capsule is also safe for kidney and heart patients.

The corona-virus infected patients aged over 18 can take the medicine as per prescription of the registered physician.

The Molvir capsule will have to be taken 4 capsules at night and 4 in the morning for five days.


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